UKRAINE

UKRAINE

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Ukraine Europe Foreign Aid

Ukraine is the second poorest country in Europe. Foreign aid provision such as housing, food, goods and services continue to be provided in assisting with the humanitarian crisis. In 2016, Ukraine was set to receive $10 billion in foreign aid. Since 1992, USAID contributed approximately $1.9 billion to Ukraine’s economic and social development. It is without doubt that foreign aid is reaching Ukraine but the sluggish improvement in poverty levels are concerning.

The UN confirmed there are approximately 1.7 million internally displaced people in Ukraine, and 60 per cent of the population live below the poverty line. How far can the thriving tourist hub sustain from foreign aid in alleviating poverty?

Population :

44,209,733

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.743 (2016)

GDP :

$349.8 billion (2016)

Life Expectancy :

71.3 years

IMR :

8 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Scholars have described Ukraine's political system as "weak, fractured, highly personal and ideologically vacuous while the judiciary and media fail to hold politicians to account" (Dr. Taras Kuzio in 2009). Ukrainian politics has been categorised as "over-centralised" which is seen as both a legacy of the Soviet system and caused by a fear of separatism.

LATVIA

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latvia gender issue

Latvia is a politically stable country, with a prime minister and fully functioning government. Latvia is part of the EU and has a growing economy yet struggles with large scale poverty.

Minimum wage incomes are forcing women in Latvia to leave the country. A typical mother in Latvia earns only three euros a day, forcing women to rely on their families for support.

In 2015, women in Latvia were (5.6 percent) more likely to experience poverty or social exclusion that men and that percentage continues to increase.

Latvia is trying to decrease poverty and has been partially successful, yet struggles to support older people and women. Today, three in ten people in Latvia are still at high risk of poverty or social exclusion.

Population :

1.96 million

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.814 (2016)

GDP :

$27.68 billion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

74.12 years

IMR :

7.91 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Latvia does have political stability, and a fully functioning government with a prime minister. They are part of the EU and the Schengen zone. Latvia is a growing country which focuses on openness to global trade and investment.

GUATEMALA

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Ukraine Foreign Aid

The 2015/2016 El Niño phenomenon led to one of the worst droughts in 35 years in Central America. In particular, Guatemala has suffered from consecutive poor harvests, which have led to limited agricultural production, lost labour opportunities and reduced household incomes, exacerbating food insecurity among already vulnerable households.

Currently, almost 50 per cent of children under five are stunted due to lack of access to nutritious foods. Within indigenous areas, nearly 70 per cent of the population is chronically malnourished.

Guatemala is the largest country in Central America, and has seen some of the strongest economic growth amongst Latin America, with an average GDP increase of 3.1 per cent since 2014. However, the nation suffers with 47 per cent of the population considered severely malnourished.

Strong economic growth is due to Guatemala's major export trades, with a total export earnings of 11.8 Billion in 2015. The top export goods in the nations are bananas ($1.02B), raw sugar ($999M), coffee($753M).

Population :

17 million

Developed Status :

Developing Nation

HDI :

0.64 (2016)

GDP :

$68.76 billion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

71.9 years

IMR :

19.9 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Unstable due to high levels of corruption.

HAITI

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Haiti Gender issue

Women in Haiti are subject to extreme poverty and sexual and psychological abuse. Until 2005, rape was not considered a serious crime.

Haiti’s 2010 earthquake that killed over 300,000 people and affected countless more, forced families to move out of built up areas and into makeshift ‘homes’ which had little access to running water and toilet facilities. Women living in these makeshift communities are 20 times more likely to suffer from sexual violence.

Many women in Haiti are forced to prostitute themselves on the street to provide for their children. Overall, the general health of women in Haiti is very poor.

Poverty Rate

58.6%. Poorest country in Western hemisphere

Population :

10,850,000

Developed Status :

Undeveloped, Third World

HDI :

0.493 (low category)

GDP :

$8 billion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

64 years

IMR :

59 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Instable government - semi presidential state - Haiti currently ranks in category D for political stability, which is described as: A high-risk political and economic situation and an often very difficult business environment can have a very significant impact on corporate payment behavior.

Corruption is much speculated to exist within the Haitian government.

USA

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USA Climate Change

Case Study (California drought)

Communities of color and low-income people that live in tribal, rural, and farming communities have been the brunt of a disproportionate share of the drought’s burden since it began in 2012.

The lasting effects of racial segregation and the underinvestment in low-income communities have threatened the physical and emotional health of people of color and low-income people due to the environments that they are placed in.

Communities are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change due to poor-quality housing and infrastructure, proximity to environmental hazards, and economic instability. Because these communities have been institutionally excluded from accruing wealth and assets—which are prominent indicators of a family’s ability to prepare for unexpected shocks—they are less able to survive and recover from disastrous events.

Population :

323,127,513

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.920 (low category)

GDP :

$18.569 Trillion (2016)

Life Expectancy :

78.74 years

IMR :

5.8 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Instable government - semi presidential state - Haiti currently ranks in category D for political stability, which is described as: A high-risk political and economic situation and an often very difficult business environment can have a very significant impact on corporate payment behavior.

Corruption is much speculated to exist within the Haitian government.

AUSTRALIA

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australia foreign aid

Despite being a developed Western nation, poverty is growing in Australia. An estimated 2.9 million Australians or 13.3 per cent of the total population are living below the poverty line in 2017.  There is also approximately 200,000 Australians that are on housing waiting lists, and a further 120,000 people deemed homeless.

"We need to shift the mindset that poverty is a reflection of the individual and instead view eradicating poverty as a shared responsibility." - Dr. Cassandra Goldie, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Council Of Social Services (ACOSS).

Population :

24.13 Million

Developed Status :

1st World Country

HDI :

0.94 (2016)

GDP :

$1.21 Trillion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

82.45 Years

IMR :

3.6 Deaths per 100 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Stable

ABORIGINALS

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aboriginals gender issue

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience poorer health than other Australian women. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) revealed that in 2011, Aboriginal females accounted for 3 per cent of the entire Australian female population. The ABS estimated that Indigenous females born in 2005-2007 could expect to live to 72.9 years, almost 10 years less than the expectation of 82.6 years for non-Indigenous females.

The low standard of living for Aboriginal women have led to their overrepresentation in the prisons. Almost all of Aboriginal women in prison come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Most women were unemployed prior to incarceration with few having completed secondary education.

Population :

24.13 Million

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.939 (2016)

GDP :

$1.21 Trillion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

82.45 Years

IMR :

3.6 Deaths per 100 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

In a recent report by The Economist Intelligence Unit - Australia achieved one of the highest rankings of any country in the world for political stability. This then directly transpires to ease of doing business in the country, with low corruption, and high government support.

BURUNDI

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australia foreign aid

Burundi is the second most impoverished country in the world, with 67 per cent of the population considered to be poverty stricken. Civil wars have riddled the country over the past 20 years, resulting in national average age of just 17 years old, with 46 per cent of the population being 14 years or younger.

Corrupt government ruling and violence heavily impacts the distribution of foreign aid within the nation, to the extent that aid donors have almost completely withdrawn efforts. As a result of poor economic climate and the difficulties posed to foreign aid suppliers, 58 per cent of the population is chronically malnourished.

Population :

11.98 Million

Developed Status :

3rd World Country

HDI :

0.4 (2015)

GDP :

$3 Billion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

57.1 Years

IMR :

65 Deaths per 100 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Stable

ANGOLA

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australia foreign aid

Since the oil boom in 2002, Angola has become Africa's largest oil producing country. However, this has not led to further employment opportunities (due to international import agreements) and instead created an even starker contrast between the rich and poor.

Most women in Angola live off less than US$2 a day. It is believed that 94 per cent of households in rural parts of Angola are considered to be impoverished. 38 per cent of the Angolian population does not have access to safe water sources.

Only 54 per cent of enrolled children complete their studies, with this figure even lower for female students. Over 73 per cent of women in Angola are illiterate.

Population :

28,810,000

Developed Status :

Developing

HDI :

0.532

GDP :

$89.63 Billion USD (2016)

Life Expectancy :

52.67 Years

IMR :

76.5 Deaths per 1000 Infants

CHINA

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china foreign aid

China is the world’s most populous country. While many view China as an economical hub that fosters trade and business in the world, many rural areas are still poverty-stricken and neglected due to many reasons such as – lack of access to technology, facilities and services.

Out of the eight factors China’s Foreign Aid policy covers, ‘emergency humanitarian aid’ and ‘debt relief’ are areas of concern that have are worth questioning. In areas that lack access to technology or communication devices – are their struggles made known? Through the facilitation of bilateral discussions, debt is better handled. But are indebted countries put in a disadvantage in accessing foreign aid? The huge disparity in poverty levels makes it hard to determine if foreign aid is provided reaches all affected areas.

Population :

1.38 billion (Aug 2017)

Developed Status :

Developing

HDI :

0.738

GDP :

$21.27 trillion (2016)

Life Expectancy :

76 Years

IMR :

12.2 Deaths per 100 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Unstable. While they moved towards a more democratic approach, many political parties are still managed by the government which has cause skepticism in citizens. The communist ideals are not completely wiped out which suggests a corrupt system within.

BANGLADESH

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bangladesh gender issue

Child marriage is a huge concerning issue for development of women’s rights in Bangladesh. According to UNICEF, 33 per cent of Bangladeshi women in 2009 were married before the age of 15, despite the legal age being 18 years.

According to UNICEF, women are often considered to be “financial burdens on their family, and from the time of birth, they receive less investment in their health, care and education.”

Once young women hit adolescence, the difference between their bodies in comparison to males is highlighted in their community and they are treated poorly due to the sexualisation of their bodies. Physical maturity is seen as an abrupt shift from childhood to adulthood.

Population :

165, 224, 381 (2017)

Developed Status :

Developing/Third world

HDI :

0.579

GDP :

$221.4 billion (2016)

Life Expectancy :

72.00 Years

IMR :

32.9 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Bangladesh’s political landscape is extraordinarily toxic. Whenever they’re out of power, parties lose all hope that the sitting government can or will convene a fair election. The Election Commission is independent on paper, but not in practice, and ever since the 1990-91 transition from military to parliamentary rule in Bangladesh, every general election has taken place in a climate of ominous uncertainty.

VENEZUELA

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venezuela foreign aid

Poverty in South America is high in all countries. However, in recent years most South American countries have experienced great economic growth. Venezuela’s current poverty rate stands at 31.9per cent, with 23.3 per cent corresponding to relative poverty and 8.6 per cent to absolute poverty.

Venezuela has continuously suffered from high poverty rates despite being rich in natural resources. Because of its abundant natural resources, there was little need for foreign aid to Venezuela.

Currently, Venezuela does not receive any foreign aid from the United States. Venezuela also lacks access to free health care and other basic services.

In 2015, Venezuela had over 100 per cent inflation – the highest in the world and the highest in the country's history at that time. The rate increased to nearly 500 per cent by the end of 2016 with Venezuela spiraling into hyperinflation while the population poverty rate was between 76 and 82 per cent according to independent sources.

If not for an intervention, how will Venezuela continue to sustain its stability and standard of living?

Population :

31.8 million (est 2016)

Developed Status :

Underdeveloped (Third World Country)

HDI :

0.767

GDP :

$404.109 billion (est 2017)

Life Expectancy :

74.41 years (2015)

IMR :

18.6 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Unstable political situation. While Venezuela is facing a strong economic crisis, this is incomparable to the critical political situation.

BOLIVIA

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bolivia gender issue

During the early 2000s Bolivia was experiencing political instability, with six different presidents in the first six years of the decade. From 2006 they have been moving towards political stability with president Evo Morales.

Almost two thirds of the population are living under the poverty line, with a great deal of inequality and a small middle class. Poverty particularly affects rural women who struggle with finding job opportunities and lack of government services.

Bolivia is the poorest country in South America, and only 9 per cent of women are formally employed. 63 per cent of women are unpaid family workers or apprentices. Women cannot rely on land ownership to support themselves as only 1.2 per cent of Bolivian land is owned by women..

Population :

10.89 Million

Developed Status :

Developing

HDI :

0.674

GDP :

$33.81 billion USD

Life Expectancy :

68.74 Years

IMR :

67 Deaths per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Historically, Bolivia is used to swift government changes. During the early 2000s they were experiencing significantly more political instability than they were accustomed to. Almost two thirds of the population are under the poverty line, there is a great deal of inequality and a small middle class. During the first 6 years of the 2000s, Bolivia had six different presidents.Today, the government has enjoyed political stability since 2006 and is run by Evo Morales.

PERU

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peru climate change

While Peru has made advances in developing its country, it is still unprepared for harsh climate conditions. Affected by both droughts and floods, citizens are crippled with lack of shelter, food and medical aid.

Devastating downpours had caused floods and landslides which pushed thousands from their homes and clogged water treatment plants with rocks and debris. Landslides can affect deliveries of food products, which in turn cause inflation and affect the ability for people in poverty to obtain necessities.

The rise is precipitation had been attributed to the unusually warm temperatures in the Pacific. The poorest people are more exposed than the average population to climate-related shocks such as floods, droughts, and heat waves, and they lose much more of their wealth when they are hit.

Population :

31,773,839

Developed Status :

Developing

HDI :

0.740

GDP :

$192.094 Billion

Life Expectancy :

74.78 Years

IMR :

19 Deaths Per 1000 Infants

GOVERNMENT STABILITY :

Historically, Bolivia is used to swift government changes. During the early 2000s they were experiencing significantly more political instability than they were accustomed to. Almost two thirds of the population are under the poverty line, there is a great deal of inequality and a small middle class. During the first 6 years of the 2000s, Bolivia had six different presidents.Today, the government has enjoyed political stability since 2006 and is run by Evo Morales.

ANTARCTICA

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antarctica china foreign aid

Spanning over 14 million square kilometers, Antarctica is the fifth largest continent. Almost 98 per cent of Antarctica is covered by thick ice, which certainly makes for harsh terrain that has little established population.

For a majority of the year, most food is either frozen, dried or tinned. It tends to arrive on base at the beginning of the summer season, in a major shipment of a year worth of food. The population of Antarctica needs to consume elevated levels of nutrition, as energy is burnt at much higher rates in the freezing cold conditions.

antarctica china foreign aid

There are no known cases of poverty in Antarctica. The only women that occupy Antarctica are working researchers and scientists. Despite only living in Antarctica for work, women are unfortunately subject to sexual harassment as they are outnumbered in the male dominated workplace.

There are 5,000 temporary residents currently in Antarctica - mainly consisting of scientific staff and researchers. People generally only live in Antarctica temporarily for work stints. Effectively, poverty does not exist here as the only people living here are doing so for work. However, if we’re talking about women in Antarctica, sexual harassment is still a problem for many working women here. Women continue to be outnumbered in many careers, including fleet operations and trades.

antarctica china foreign aid

Antarctica has experienced air temperature increases of 3°C in the Antarctic Peninsula. This has caused the melting of ice shelves which contribute to the yearly rising of global sea levels.

Satellite measurements since the early 1990s indicate that sea level is rising at a rate of 3mm per year and indeed sea level has been rising over the last century. The rising of sea levels could affect islands and countries globally. An example would be the Solomon Islands which have seen five of its islands lost completely due to rising sea levels. This has caused families that reside in parts affected to be left homeless or forcibly relocated to higher grounds inland or other islands.

Maldives is another country that is affected by the rising sea levels. It is ranked as one of the most endangered countries in the world due to rising sea levels and flooding caused by climate change. The Maldivian president predicts that if carbon emissions continue at its current rate, the country would be underwater by the year 2020.

Vietnam and Bangladesh are two other countries that could be affected by rising sea levels. These effects could cause people to lose their lives, homes, source of food and income.

PHILIPPINES

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peru climate change

According to the 2014 Global Climate Risk Index, among 178 countries affected by extreme weather events, The Philippines came in second due to flooding and typhoons in 2012.

In that year, there were 1,400 lives were taken due to Typhoon ‘Bopha’ .

In recent years, a changing climate has lead to changes in extreme weather events threatening Philippines’s food security.

According to the Department of Agriculture, the dry spell caused damages of up to P4.769 billion to agriculture sector in February, 2016.

Specifically, 349.620 metric tons of crops was destroyed and 21,490 rural farmers affected.

Population :

31,773,839

Developed Status :

Developing

HDI :

0.740

GDP :

$192.094 Billion

Life Expectancy :

74.78 Years

IMR :

19 Deaths Per 1000 Infants

Government Stability / Political Stability :

Historically, Bolivia is used to swift government changes. During the early 2000s they were experiencing significantly more political instability than they were accustomed to. Almost two thirds of the population are under the poverty line, there is a great deal of inequality and a small middle class. During the first 6 years of the 2000s, Bolivia had six different presidents.Today, the government has enjoyed political stability since 2006 and is run by Evo Morales.

PORTUGAL

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Portugal climate change

Although Europe is a relatively peaceful continent compares with others, The climate change caused byextreme weather events also have a huge impact on many European countries. Climate change accelerates issues such as droughts, flood and storms in Europe every year.

There have been 1,068 blazes in Europe so far in 2017. Research shows that Europe’s extreme June heat this year is related to climate change.

This year alone, Portugal forest fires has killed 64 people and injured hundreds of Portuguese who live in the area. Research also found that due to global warming Portugal is suffering soaring temperature ten times more frequent compared to the worldwide standard.

Population :

103,200,00

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.843

GDP :

$204.6 Billion

Life Expectancy :

81.52 Years

IMR :

4.4 Deaths Per 1000 Infants

Government Stability :

Portugal is a republic based on a parliamentary democracy. The constitution establishes a 'semi-presidential' regime for the country. As compare with other European countries, Portugal is politically stable. Portugal’s immigrant communities mostly from Brazil.

ZIMBABWE

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Zimbabwe climate change

Zimbabwe is a semi-arid country which struggles with water resources. As climate change becomes more prevalent, it will become critical that Zimbabwe utilizes resources to reuse and recycle water.

Water is a crucial element of life in Zimbabwe, a semi-arid country with limited water resources. The country already struggles with water resource availability but it is predicted that growing climate change stressors on the environment will make water very scarce in Zimbabwe.

The World Bank Group is working with Zimbabwe to come up with plans for how to improve water efficiency as well as mining groundwater resources for when droughts become more frequent.

WBG projects that by 2050 significant reduction in rainfall, rivers and groundwater recharge will most severely impact water catchments in southern Zimbabwe. Climate change will inevitably hit Zimbabwe hard. The country’s current focus is on how best to adapt to climate change before it seriously affects the country and its economy.

Population :

16.15 Million

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.14

GDP :

$16.29 Billion

Life Expectancy :

59.16 Years

IMR :

23.6 Deaths Per 1000 Infants

Government Stability :

President Robert Mugabe has been in power for many years. The country struggles with independence, poverty and unemployment..

INDIGENOUS

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Australia (Indigenous)  climate change

Inland living Indigenous Australians are more prone to the wider effects of climate change.

Over 45 per cent of the remote population in Australia is comprised of Indigenous communities, and inland temperatures soar 2 degrees higher compared to coastal communities. Due to the general low-socio economic status of inland Indigenous communities, it can be difficult for them to access appropriate measures to cope with these rising temperatures.

However, and given that Indigenous people own an estimated 20 per cent of the Australian land, there is a large opportunity to generate wealth and contribute to the eradication of climate change, through methods such as permitting the construction of wind turbines in these areas.

Population :

24.13 million

Developed Status :

Developed

HDI :

0.939

GDP :

$1.205 trillion

Life Expectancy :

82.6 Years

IMR :

3.2 Deaths Per 1000 Infants

Government Stability :

In a recent report by The Economist Intelligence Unit - Australia achieved one of the highest rankings of any country in the world for political stability. This then directly transpires to ease of doing business in the country, with low corruption, and high government support.

Overcoming obstacles

to eradicate

Global Poverty

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